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If we cut out welfare and allowed capitalism to take its course, would people's basic needs eventually be fully met by the free market?
The top answers are so bad that they merit a response.I see many communists rehashing the well worn statement along the lines of “NO, businesses only care about profits not people”. Yeah yeah we know. The reality is the following.First things first, all resources in society are limited. Land is limited, food is limited, timber is limited, especially a person’s time is limited. Therefore, as humans we have to decide how we will use all of these limited resources. Considering that there are millions of products we could potentially create out of just a few hundred raw resources, this is very complex. How could we possibly know what and how much of something to produce? Well we have to usePRICES.What are prices in the first place? They are nothing more than signals to society. They tell producers what society wants and how much of it they want. If a business generates an evil profit it is because it is fulfilling the needs of society. If a house building company generates a profit it is because they are supplying a roughly correct amount and quality of shelter to the masses. If it were losing money then that is the way of society to tell the home builder company that they are not using resources efficiently and are not supplying enough or good enough housing to the masses, therefore, they go out of business, or must change their ways so as to satisfy the needs of the masses better. If they do change their ways and organize societies’ limited resources better, then people buy from them more and they are rewarded with profits.Profits are not evil any more than losses are evil. They are simply empirical ways to know if limited resources are being used the way society needs.So on to the welfare question.Without even explaining the immorality of stealing peoples money to give to others, I ask the question, is it even possible for government to ensure the welfare of citizens? Further (and the most important part), how does the state know how much shelter, food, medicine, etc. to give to people if there is no profit or loss system? Think about it, it takes hundreds if not thousands of inputs JUST TO MAKE A PENCIL. Each of those inputs (rubber, wood, graphite, machining, transportation), has their own set of prices (determined by profit and loss) which all is taken into consideration to determine the final price of the pencil. Do you ever notice that we never have a shortage of pencils? For that matter do you ever notice that there is a shortage of bread, or meat, or cars, or electricity? You can thank the free market and the profit-loss system for that.Now on the contrary do you ever wonder why in socialist paradises such as Venezuela, Zimbabwe, the USSR, and Communist China, people are or always were starving and died of basic things like fevers? Do you wonder why around 100 million people died in socialist countries just in the 20th century? All of these countries had universal welfare, what happened? Simply, without any profit and loss system as inherent in capitalism, they had no possible way of knowing what and how much of things to produce. The result? Mass starvation. Even though these before mentioned countries are incredibly rich in natural resources and farmland.Now many will say, “yeah but we aren’t proposing full socialism we just want the government to provide basic stuff, you know mixed economy and all that”. this doesn’t make the basic economics go away. The government doesn’t rely on the profit loss system, they rely on a system of coercion and taxation. this means that they don’t have a profit or a loss, they just have huge budgets and abstract “goals”. Efficiency and consumer demand doesn’t even fit into the calculation and therefore the “welfare” they provide will always be progressively more expensive and lesser quality. Don’t just take my word for itThe sadly funny thing is that poverty steadily declined in the “horrible” capitalist days of the 19th and early 20th centuries, whereas, with the introduction of the modern welfare state in the U.S. the poverty rate has stagnated in spite of the enormous and ever increasing budget we throw at the so called “war on poverty”. Why? Again, because economic calculation for the state is impossible and therefore they can never know what, how, or how much of something to produce, in this case, welfare.Contrast this to capitalism which decades ago eliminated the kind of grinding poverty that plagued mankind for centuries (at least in the west where it has most thoroughly been implemented), and continues to lift humankind up to more elevated standards of living today. Just remember that if you enjoy having an abundance of food, shelter, clothing, etc. it is thanks to the profit-loss system that enables companies to empirically know how much you need of something. Paradoxically, however, the more government “welfare” we have the more we will need.If you want to read more in depth about the subject go to Emerging| All Things Liberty and Art
Which forms do I need to fill in order to file New York state taxes?
You must determine your New York State residency status. You need to answer these questions:Did you live in an on-campus apartment or an apartment or house off-campus in New York State in 2012?Did you maintain, or rent, the on-campus apartment or off-campus residence for at least 11 months in 2012?Were you physically present in New York State for at least 183 days in 2012?If the answers to all three questions are "Yes", and you were not a full-time undergraduate student (which as an F-1 OPT I assume you were not), you are a New York State resident for tax purposes. Otherwise you are a nonresident.You file Form IT-201, http://www.tax.ny.gov/pdf/curren..., if you are a resident of New York State, Form IT-203, http://www.tax.ny.gov/pdf/curren..., if you are not.
How do you fill in a State University of New York at Oswego transcript request?
In all USA institutes all aspiring foreigner students are required to submit their academic record of their native country, endorsed by the school or college in original and these documents shall be NOT be returned.If you are applying for pre-college / pre-university courses, you will submit your school records. If applying for post graduate courses then submit your marks list of your graduated course.Transcript = Marks list, academic records (certificates of class performance) these are the documents which you need to take from your college i.e. take duplicate mark sheets or take color photocopies & get it endorsed by your school or college, and submit it in YOUR school / college LOGO sealed envelope.Sometimes, they may not accept color photocopies also, in such case, go back to your school or college and take duplicate marks sheet / qualifying exam completion certificate get it endorsed by the school or college and then submit.Remember : Be careful = Do not submit your ORIGINALs for they will NOT BE RETURNED.
Is it economically feasible for the USA to build a canal from the East coast to the West coast?
No. This sounds like something someone who has not visited the western US might wonder, but then... if you go to the western US it all looks like this:Salt Lake City, Utah Tacoma, Washington: Sparks, Nevada: Denver Colorado:Los Angeles, California:Keep in mind that both Salt Lake City and Denver are both over 4,000 ft above sea level already, and then they have those mountains around them still. It is probably not even physically possible. Most of the interior Western US is at least 4,000 feet above sea level. In Western Washington you can go from 0 feet above sea level standing on the beach to over 14,000 feet above sea level in under 60 miles. That's the ocean, and from it you can see Mt. Rainier.  Of course, that is an extreme, but the construction crews would have to dig thousands of feet deep for thousands of miles. It doesn't sound physically possible.There's not a single line East-West that does not cross over a place at least 3,000 feet above sea level. I don't think any group of people in history has dug a trench 4,000 feet deep. I suppose you could keep the water going through a complex system of interlocking locks, and keep it above sea level, but you would still need to probably dig thousands of feet deep for it to work. There's no way you can have water not pour out when the canal is sloped at a 30 degree angle.Another challenge for this would be the material of the rocks out west. See that red stuff?It crumbles a lot, and has trouble even supporting roads:We are unable to prevent rockslides after even cutting through 100 feet of rock. Really many highways here are never complete. They are always breaking or being blocked by rockslides, and in constant need of repair. At least a few days a year Snoqualmie Pass connecting eastern and western Washington gets blocked by rockslides and avalanches.   Imagine trying to dig a 4,000 ft trench, maybe 2,000 if you got the interlocking canal locks to work, with that material as any part of the trench. It just couldn't support it. 4,000 ft is really taller than any man-made structure ever built.  Another factor is that out west it often gets to below 0. Even ocean water will freeze at 28.4 degrees fahrenheit (-2 C). These are average temperatures. Some days it gets much colder.At 10 degrees (-12 C) the small amount of water in the canal will freeze.  Every year, unless this entire canal is heated, the body of water in it will freeze solid, expand, crack, and break. It would only be able to be used in the summer. This entire thing would be pointless anyways. It is much quicker to deliver a package across the US on land than by sea around it. A cargo ship moves at an average speed of 26.5 miles per hour (it varies by the type of ship, but see How to shrink the world). In the western US trucks are usually allowed to drive between 55 and 75 mph. It takes 41 hours to drive from Seattle to New York City without traffic. It would take a cargo ship 3 times that long to sail through the middle of the country, assuming it was even possible.Back to locks... I mentioned before that it was possible to transport water to higher elevations using interlocking locks. This is how the Panama Canal works. Part of the reason the Panama Canal is possible is because of a big lake that feeds the canal "down-canal" (instead of downstream)Similarly, there is a system of canals connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic in the Eastern US and Canada:In both these cases, the locks are fed by rivers and lakes.Much of the western US has no large lakes or rivers, and there really are practically none in Texas, Oklahoma, or Nebraska... In Texas especially, most of the rivers seem to be dry. Here is the Rio Grande:Here's the Brazos RiverThe Colorado River is already being used for freshwater and electricity in many different states.Not only this, but the Western US is in a water crisis.Here's a map of Droughts in the US:There are no water resources that could be exploited to fill this canal without sacrificing most of the cities, power, agriculture, and other things the water is already used for. Not to mention it would destroy the environment.All of the water would have to be pumped from sea level, to thousands of feet above sea level along a series of locks, and the canal would have to be wide enough for ships to go through it.I don't think this would be possible without still having to cut a canal through thousands of feet of rock...I mean a lock system just can't work on a slope like this, at least not to a capacity for ships to go up it:You would still have to cut thousands of feet deep to make the slope less steep. 
What are the best secret/hidden spots in New York City to check out?
I'm not a New Yorker, but I visit this city enough to not be called a "tourist". I'm not sure if this place has been mentioned before, but there's a huge segment of the Berlin Wall in a small park on 53rd St between 5th and Madison Ave.The Cloisters is a museum on the West Side located way up near 190th St. It features a large part of John Rockefeller's medieval art collection and features around 1,900 different exhibits. It is not a "secret" per se, but definitely worth a visit, if only to see the scenery of the Hudson and surrounding area (George Washington Bridge etc). I felt like I was somewhere in Europe while I was there yesterday. It is not on the typical tourist's map, which makes it better since its away from all the hustle. Prosperity Dumpling, ChinatownWith 1,200 reviews on Yelp, this place is definitely not a secret, but I doubt non-New Yorkers would know of this place. It is a hole-in-the-wall located in the heart of Chinatown, and serves delicious pork and chives dumplings at an extremely inexpensive price of $1.00 for 5 of them. My personal favorite is the Chicken Sesame Pancake, which costs around $2.50 per pancake. They also sell dumplings in bulk, which I imagine is at a cheaper per-unit rate than the retail price of 12.5¢ per dumpling. Its a great place to go to when you don't feel like spending 10 bucks on a lunch in NYC. DUMBO in Brooklyn (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass, right near the Brooklyn Bridge) features one of the most beautiful views of Manhattan, and is a great place to walk around and explore for those who want to get away from the hustle and bustle of Manhattan The "real" Halal Guys cart (53rd and 6th) only comes after 8pm. The others are just knock-offs.Even though tickets are sold out months in advance, you can become a part of the Saturday Night Live studio audience if you're willing to go to 30 Rockefeller at 7am for standby tickets. If you reach there in time, you will most probably be able to become a part of the studio audience.The Jersey City Waterfront features some of the most spectacular views of the Manhattan skylineBelvedere Castle in Central Park (mid-park at 79th st) has an observation deck which offers beautiful views of Central Park and Manhattan. Speaking of Central Park, Strawberry Fields is John Lennon's memorial spread over 2.5 acres I haven't done this yet, but "Shakespeare In The Park" in the Delacorte Theater in Central Park is quite an experience. It is a free presentation of some of Shakespeare's most famous plays. It runs in the months of June and July every year. Best part is that tickets are free and are distributed on a first-come-first-serve basis.Shakespeare in the Park's performance of Romeo and Juliet Ice cream, milkshake and milk flavored like the milk that remains after you eat Kelloggs cereal, only at Momofuku Milk Bar in East Village (and other locations!)milkbarstore.comSeven Hills Cafe at 849 Manhattan Ave, Brooklyn serves the best hookah in New York City. Priced at only $10 per hookah (with the $5 Yelp check-in coupon), it features every imaginable flavor, great service (albeit a little slow) and lip-smackingly amazing Turkish and Lebanese food. That's all I can think of for now. I'll add more "secrets" as and when they come to mind.
What are some must sees or dos when in New York City to fill out a two day itinerary?
Get yourself Metrocards. They work in the Subways and on the buses. Each ride is about $2.75. However, you can transfer from bus to subway, bus to bus, Subway to Subway, or Subway to bus for free.When I take people around for two days, I typically start with the Statue of Liberty. First boat goes out at 8:30 a m. Do not talk to sidewalk ticket agents. At best, they will sell you the $19 ticket for $25, with a commission. At worst, thousands last year paid for boat trips that did not go to the Statue of Liberty, after being told by street ticket agents that it would.From the statue, it's a short walk to either the financial district or World Trade Center Memorial. (We don't call it Ground Zero anymore.)After that, I walk over the Brooklyn Bridge to Brooklyn Heights, with its beautiful 150-year-old houses, including those that housed Arthur Miller, Norman Mailer, Truman Capote and WH Auden. Stop at the Brooklyn Heights Promenade with a 15 km or 10 Mile view of the city and the harbor.This takes us to lunch the first day.Contact me if you want to learn the rest of this two-day itinerary. I'm always looking for another day of work!
Is there a map creator out there that will allow me to colour/fill in regions/states/provinces of countries rather than only the whole country itself?
There are a few blank maps on Wikipedia (both as SVG and PNG) that include subdivisions, such as:These can be shaded using graphics software such as Inkscape or GIMP (using the palette, bucket, selection and color selection tools). For example, this is how I recently created the following map, which includes the Chinese provinces and Indian states:
How do you subpoena a witness who resides in New York to testify in an out-of-state proceeding?
The Uniform Act to Secure the Attendance of Witnesses from Without a State in Criminal Proceedings was completed in 1936.  The act provides states with statutory authority to secure the attendance of a witness from without the state in which the criminal proceeding or grand jury proceeding is pending.  In New York, the act is codified in Article 640 of the Criminal Procedure Law.  Specifically, CPL 640.10(2) states, in pertinent part: If a judge of a court in any state which by its laws has made provision for commanding persons within that state to attend and testify in [New York] certifies under the seal of such court that there is a criminal prosecution pending in such court, or that a grand jury investigation has commenced or is about to commence, that a person being within [New York] is a material witness in such prosecution, or grand jury investigation, and that his presence will be required for a specified number of days, upon presentation of such certificate to a justice of the supreme court or a county judge in the county in which such person is, such justice or judge shall fix a time and place for a hearing, and shall make an order directing the witness to appear at a time and place certain for the hearing.  If at such hearing the justice or judge determines that the witness is material and necessary, that it will not cause undue hardship to the witness to be compelled to attend and testify in the prosecution or a grand jury investigation in the other state, and that the laws of the state in which the prosecution is pending, or grand jury investigation has commenced or is about to commence, will give to him protection from arrest and the service of civil and criminal process, he shall issue a subpoena, with a copy of the certificate attached, directing the witness to attend and testify in the court where the prosecution is pending, or where a grand jury investigation has commenced or is about to commence at a time and place specified in the subpoena. . . .  In layman's terms, if an out-of-state attorney wishes to subpoena a witness who resides in New York to testify in an out-of-state criminal proceeding,  said attorney must persuade a judge in the subpoenaing jurisdiction to certify, under seal, that (1) there is a criminal prosecution pending in that jurisdiction's court, or that a grand jury investigation has commenced or is about to commence, (2) that said witness is a material witness in any such proceeding, and (3) that the witness's presence will be needed for X amount of days.  Upon clearing that step, the out-of-state attorney (presuming they are not admitted to practice in New York) will need to forward the original certified papers to an attorney licensed in New York in order to present "such certificate to a justice of the supreme court or a county judge in the county in which such person is."  That to say, if the witness resides in Manhattan, the certifying papers must be submitted before a supreme court justice seated in New York County.  Included with the certifying papers from the subpoenaing jurisdiction must be an order to show cause submitted by the attorney licensed to practice in New York.  To the extent that the order to show cause is signed by a qualifying justice, the order along with the certifying papers must then be personally served upon the witness.Upon service, the witness may either make arrangements with the out-of-state attorney to travel to the out-of-state criminal proceeding (the out-of-state attorney should be prepared to pay for the witness's travel and lodging costs) , or, the witness may move to quash the subpoena on the return date set forth in the order to show cause.  Generally, a motion to quash will be founded upon the hardship provision set forth in CPL 640.10(2).  To that end, the Court of Appeals has illustratively interpreted what constitutes a hardship in the cases of Matter of Codey [Capital Cities, Am. Broadcasting Corp.], 82 N.Y.2d 521 (1993), and Matter of Holmes, 22 N.Y.3d 300 (2013).In sum, subpoenaing a witness who resides in New York to testify in an out-of-state criminal proceeding is a straightforward process guided by Article 640 of New York's Criminal Procedure Law.  To the extent that legal assistance is needed in subpoenaing a witness under this article, please do not hesitate to contact The Law Office of Phillip Hamilton, PLLC @www.philliphamiltonlaw.com.
Do you need a rental license to rent out a home in New York state?
You can be a landlord without getting a real estate license, but business licenses are another matter. The rules for small businesses vary from city to city and county to county, but many local governments require local businesses take out a license. In 2011, for example, Salt Lake City passed a rule specifying that a landlord has to get a business license, even if she only rents out a single property.In addition a personal license, you may have to register the property as well. In Destin, Florida, for example, you must give the city your name, address and the address of the property. You also provide the name and number of your rental agent if you're not managing the place yourself. You have to guarantee that someone will be available by phone 24/7 to respond to complaints or problems such as squeezing in more tenants than the zoning allows.For information hire an real estate advisor
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